Accretion. Coastal land
increasing due to sediment being added to it.
Asset. This refers to something of value and
may be environmental, economical, social, recreational and so on.
Beach recharge. This is the management practice
of adding to the natural amount of sediment (such as sand) on a beach by using
material from elsewhere. This is also known as beach replenishment, nourishment
Beach recharge material. Natural sediment sourced from elsewhere
used to replenish the beach.
Biodiversity. The richness and variety of wildlife (both
plant and animal) and habitats on earth.
Biodiversity action plans. National action plans for an
important habitat or species, approved by the Government, as part of the overall
UK biodiversity action plan. (See the reference for the UK Biodiversity Group,
1995 and 1999.) Each action plan provides a description of the species or
habitat and any threats to it. It sets targets for recovery and lists the
actions needed to meet these targets.
Biodiversity objective. An aim for maintaining and improving
biodiversity within a habitat.
Biodiversity target. This target was approved
by the World Summit on Sustainable Development. "To achieve, by 2010, a significant
reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional
and national level as a contribution to easing poverty and to benefit all
life on earth."
Catchment flood management plan. A large-scale
planning framework for managing flood risk to people and the developed and
natural environment. See guidance
published in July 2004 and Defra's
website for further details.
Client steering group (CSG). A group formed
to review the shoreline management plan, in this case comprising representatives
of Waveney and Suffolk Coastal District Councils, the Environment Agency,
Natural England, British Energy and the Port Authorities at Lowestoft and
Coastal defence. A term used to cover both coastal protection
against erosion and sea defence against flooding.
Coastal defence strategy plan. A detailed assessment of
the coastal defence options for a policy unit, based on Defra's guidance:
Coastal habitat management plan (CHaMP). A management plan
that identifies the flood and coastal defence work that is likely to be needed
in a given area to conserve a European site (or group of sites), particularly
where the current defence line may not be able to be maintained over the long
term. A guidance note was produced in 2000 by English Nature and others (see
the references list for details).
Coastal process units. These were defined by previous SMPs
as a length of shoreline in which the physical processes are relatively independent
from the processes in neighbouring coastal process units.
Coastal processes. The set of processes that operate along
Coastal squeeze. The process by which coastal habitats and
natural features are progressively lost or drowned, caught between coastal
defences and rising sea levels.
Coastal zone management plan. Plans through which local
authorities and others put planning objectives and policies into practice
for an area of the coast, which deal with a range of issues such as managing,
developing, recreating and conserving landscapes.
Consequence. An outcome or a result, such as an economic,
social or environmental effect. It may be expressed as a quantity (such as
monetary value), a category (high, medium or low) or a description (see Defra
Earth heritage. A term which describes
landscapes identified as important for their fossils, minerals or other geological
Economic assessment. An assessment which takes account of
a wide range of costs and benefits, generally those that can be valued in
Environment. This term covers landscape and natural beauty,
wildlife, habitats, and buildings, sites and objects of archaeological, architectural
or historical interest.
Epoch. This refers to a period of time. In the SMP three
epochs are defined - 0 to 20, 20 to 50 and 50 to 100 years from the present.
Erosion. The loss of land due to the effects of waves and,
in the case of coastal cliffs, slope processes (such as high groundwater levels).
This may include cliff instability, where coastal processes result in landslides
or rock falls.
European site. Any site that has been officially designated
as a site of international nature conservation importance, either as a special
protection area (SPA), a special area of conservation (SAC) or a Ramsar (see
the glossary) site. When considering planning, it is government policy to
treat possible SPAs, candidate SACs and listed Ramsar sites as if they were
Future Coast. A study Defra commissioned
to provide consistent information on coastal processes and possible future
development of the coast, for the whole of England and Wales (www.defra.gov.uk/environ/fcd/Futurecoast.htm).
Geomorphology. The study of landforms on
the earth's surface and processes of forming land.
Habitat Directive. EC Directive 92/43 on
conserving natural habitats, wildlife and plant life.
Habitat Regulations. The Conservation (Natural Habitats
& c.) Regulations 1994. This makes the Habitats Directive UK law.
Hazard. A situation with the potential to result in harm.
A hazard does not necessarily lead to harm.
Heritage Coast. Heritage Coast is a national definition
to cover the most unspoilt areas of undeveloped coastline around England and
Historic environment. Previous environmental conditions
over a range of timescales.
Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM).
A strategy to identify lasting levels of economic and social activity in our
coastal areas while protecting the coastal environment. It brings together
all those involved in developing, managing and using the coast within a framework
that makes it easier to join their interests and responsibilities together.
Intertidal areas. The area between mean high water level
and mean low water level in a coastal region.
Inundation. An overflow of water or an expanse of water
Landscape character assessment. A way of
identifying and explaining different things (such as woodlands, hedgerows,
moors, mountains and farmland, building styles and historic artefacts) which
give a place its unique character.
Management units. These were defined by
previous SMPs as a length of shoreline with similar characteristics in terms
of coastal processes and assets at risk that can be managed effectively. They
have now been replaced by policy units.
Natural areas. This covers both the small
number of natural areas and the much greater semi-natural areas of Britain,
which are otherwise undeveloped but may have been influenced by people's actions
over the years.
Nature conservation. - designations Below is a list of statutory
and non-statutory nature conservation designations
(areas identified as special sites for their wildlife and habitats).
Natural Processes. Those processes over which people have
no significant control (such as wind and waves).
Net 'along shore' movement. The difference in the yearly
total movement of sand and shingle in each direction along the shore.
Non-statutory conservation. Local-authority
conservation plans aimed to protect a local environmental resource.
Operating authority. An organisation with
legal powers to carry out flood defence or coast protection activities, usually
the Environment Agency or maritime district council.
Planning policy guidance (PPG). Issued by
the Government to set out its national land use policies for England on different
areas of planning. These are gradually being replaced by planning policy statements
Policy unit. A length of shoreline with similar characteristics
in terms of coastal processes and assets at risk which can be managed efficiently.
Preferred policy. The policy that best meets the objectives
set out in the SMP.
Ramsar. The Conservation of Wetlands, signed
in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971 is a treaty between governments which provides the
framework for national action and international co-operation for protecting
wetlands and their resources.
Residual life. The time until a defence is no longer able
to achieve minimum 'acceptable performance'.
Residual risk. The risk which remains after managing and
reducing risks. It may include, for example, risk due to very severe storms
or risks from unexpected hazards.
Risk assessment. Considering risks to people and the developed,
historic and natural environment.
Risk management. Managing and monitoring risks (see also this article from the Environment Agency).
River basin management plans. The plans which must be developed
to put the EU Water Framework Directive into force.
Schedule IV. Part of the Coast Protection
Act 1949 which says waters excluded for purposes of definitions of 'sea' and
'seashore', that is, the upstream limit in estuaries and rivers.
Scheduled monuments. The main legislation concerning archaeology
in the UK is the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. This
Act, building on legislation dating back to 1882, provides for nationally
important archaeological sites to be protected as scheduled ancient monuments.
Sediment cell. A length of coastline and its associated
nearshore area within which the movement of coarse sediment (sand and shingle)
is largely self-contained. Interruptions to the movement of sand and shingle
within one cell should not affect beaches in a neighbouring sediment cell.
A report was produced in 1994 defining sediment cells around the coast of
England and Wales (author: HR Wallingford 1994).
Sediment sub-cell. A smaller part of a sediment cell within
which the movement of coarse sediment (sand and shingle) is relatively self-contained.
Sediment supply. Adding sediment to a beach.
Shoreline management policy. A general term for any management
Shoreline response. The way the boundary between the land
and the sea changes due to varying coastal processes and people's actions.
Spatial planning. Spatial planning refers to the methods
used to balance demands for development with the need to protect the environment,
and to achieve social and economic objectives.
Stakeholder. A person or organisation with an interest or
concern in the SMP
Statutory conservation. A legal duty
to protect and manage an area of national importance in terms of environmental
Strategic. This describes carrying out any process in a
wide-ranging way, taking account of all associated effects, interests of other
people and the widest possible options for solving a problem. In this SMP,
the word 'strategic' does not mean any particular level in the planning process.
Strategic environmental assessment (SEA). A process of assessing
the environmental opportunities and restrictions of a project, and identifying
and managing its implications. An SEA is a legal requirement of certain plans
and programmes, under the Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programmes
Sustainable development principles. Standards set by the
UK Government, the Scottish Executive and the Welsh Assembly Government for
a policy to be sustainable. See Defra's website at www.defra.gov.uk/environment/sustainable/index.htm.
Sustainable management. The process of developing (land,
cities, business, communities and so on) that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Sustainable policies. Sustainable policies lead to coastal
defence solutions that avoid committing future generations to inflexible and
expensive options for defence. They will usually include considering relationships
with other defences and likely developments and processes within a coastal
cell or sub-cell.
Transparent and auditable. This means the
process is open so that people can see what the process involves and understand
why a decision has been made.
Water Framework Directive. This Directive
is European Union legislation which covers all inland and coastal waters.
The Directive sets a framework which should provide substantial benefits for
managing water over the long term. Further details are on Defra's website